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Cancer / Oncology

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. The three components which have improved survival in cancer are: Prevention – by reduction of risk factors like tobacco and alcohol consumption -Early diagnosis – screening of common cancers and comprehensive diagnosis and staging Treatment – multimodality management by discussion in tumor board and treatment in a comprehensive cancer centre.

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer

The main type of surgery for prostate cancer is a radical prostatectomy. In this operation, the surgeon removes the entire prostate gland plus some of the tissue around it, including the seminal vesicles. A radical prostatectomy can be done in different ways.

Surgical Treatments for Prostate Cancer : 
If biopsy results is benign then patient will need TURP and if biopsy results in malignant then patient will need radical prostectomy.

TURP : 
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a type of prostate surgery done to relieve moderate to severe urinary symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate, a condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Radical Prostectomy : 
A radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it. It is done to remove prostate cancer. This operation will be done by laparoscopic surgery through small incisions.

In case of Metastasis:-
The patient may also need Radiotherapy or Chemo therapy.

Radiation therapy for Prostate Cancer
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays or particles to kill cancer cells. Radiation may be used:

  1.  As the first treatment for low-grade cancer that is still just in the prostate gland.
  2.  As a combination treatment for cancers that have grown outside of the prostate gland and into nearby tissues.
  3.  If there is any residual cancer or relapses / comes back (recurs) in the area of the prostate after the initial surgery.
  4.  If the cancer is well spread and the tumour is big, to reduce the size of the tumor and to provide relief from present and possible future symptoms.

The 2 main types of radiation therapy are external beam radiation and brachytherapy (internal radiation). Both appear to be good methods of treating prostate cancer, although there is more long-term information about the results with external beam radiation.

Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer
In Chemotherapy medical oncologist uses anti-cancer drugs injected into a vein or given by mouth. These drugs enter the bloodstream and go throughout the body, making this treatment potentially useful for cancers that have spread (metastasized) to distant organs.

Hormone (androgen deprivation) therapy for Prostate Cancer 
Hormone therapy is also called androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen suppression therapy. The goal is to reduce levels of male hormones, called androgens, in the body, or to stop them from affecting prostate cancer cells. The main androgens are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Non Surgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer:
HolEP Treatment for Prostate Cancer / Laser Treatment for Prostate Cancer :
Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a treatment for an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia).

During HoLEP, a laser is used to precisely remove the obstructive portion of the prostate, similar to open surgery without the need for incisions. A separate instrument called a morcellator is then used to cut the prostate tissue into easily removable fragments. With HoLEP, surgeons remove the entire portion of the prostate gland that can block urine flow, which improves urinary symptoms and provides a lasting solution as there is nothing to grow back following this procedure

HIFU – High Intensity Ultrasound Treatment for Prostate Cancer 
HIFU uses high frequency ultrasound waves to heat and destroy cancer cells in the prostate for Prostate cancers that are localized. HIFU is one of the treatments that’s used for prostate cancer that is completely contained within the prostate.

Newly diagnosed childhood brain stem glioma is a tumor for which no treatment has been given. The child may have received drugs or treatment to relieve signs or symptoms caused by the tumor. Standard treatment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) may include the following: Radiation therapy

Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

What is Brain Stem Gliomas?
The brain stem is the central hub of the brain and central nervous system connecting the brain and the spinal cord. It includes the midbrain, pons and medulla. Brain stem gliomas account for approximately 10% of pediatric brain tumors.

Types of Brain Stem Gliomas
Focal Brainstem Gliomas
(30% of brainstem gliomas) involve more commonly the upper midbrain and lower medulla and carry the best prognosis.

Diffuse Brainstem Gliomas
(70%) are most commonly found in the pons and upper midbrain, are infiltrative and carry the worst prognosis.

Symptoms:

  1.  Double vision or an inability to close the eyelids
  2.  Drooping of the face
  3.  Difficulty chewing and swallowing food
  4.  Weakness in the arms and legs, clumsiness or wobbliness, and difficulty walking
  5.  Difficulty talking
  6.  Headache
  7.  Vomiting

Treatments: Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy uses x-rays or other high-energy particles to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is the most common treatment for brain stem glioma.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells, because it kills cancer cells throughout the body, it is called a systemic treatment. Chemotherapy alone is not an effective treatment for brain stem glioma; however, in some cases, a doctor may use chemotherapy during or after radiation treatments. Because chemotherapy attacks rapidly dividing cells, including those in normal tissues such as the hair, lining of the mouth, intestines, and bone marrow, children receiving chemotherapy may lose their hair, develop mouth sores, or have nausea and vomiting. Chemotherapy may lower the body’s resistance to infection, lead to increased bruising and bleeding, and cause fatigue.

Surgery
Surgery is used to treat brain stem glioma only when the tumor’s appearance on an MRI scan is focal, thus suggesting it may be possible to remove the cancer without damaging the brain.

 

 

The treatment protocols vary widely according to the location of the tumor, its size and type, your age, and any additional medical problems that you may have. The most widely used treatments are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In most cases, more than one of these is used.

Brain Tumour Surgery

A Brain Tumour is an abnormal growth of cells within the brain, which can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

Causes of Brain Tumour

  1.  Radiation to the head
  2.  An inherited (genetic) risk
  3.  HIV infection
  4.  Cigarette smoking
  5.  Environmental toxins (for example, chemicals used in oil refineries, embalming chemicals, rubber industry chemicals)

Symptoms:

  1.  Low blood pressure and Eye problems
  2.  Obesity
  3.  Sensitivity to heat or cold
  4.  Changes in the person’s mental function
  5.  Headaches, Seizures, Clumsiness and Dizziness
  6.  Weakness in one part of the body
  7.  Change in alertness (including sleepiness, unconsciousness, and coma)
  8.  Changes in hearing, taste or smell and ability to feel pain, pressure, different temperatures, or other stimuli
  9.  Confusion or Memory loss
  10.  Difficulty swallowing, writing or reading
  11.  Lack of control over the bladder or bowels
  12.  Loss of balance, coordination
  13.  Numbness or tingling on one side of the body
  14.  Personality, mood, behavior, or emotional changes
  15.  Trouble speaking or understanding others who are speaking and walking
  16.  Abnormal nipple discharge
  17.  Absent menstruation (periods)
  18.  Enlarged hands and feet, Excessive body hair and Facial changes

Brain Tumour Surgery / Treatments
Surgery For Brain Tumour – Craniotomy . Craniotomy Surgery is done by opening a small flap of skull to access the tumour and then taking the tumour out surgically. If the brain tumour is located in a place that makes it accessible for an operation, your surgeon will work to remove as much of your brain tumor as possible. In some cases, tumors are small and easy to separate from surrounding brain tissue, which makes complete surgical removal possible. In other cases, tumors can’t be separated from surrounding tissue or they’re located near sensitive areas in your brain, making surgery risky. In these situations your doctor may try to remove as much of the tumor as is safe. Even removing a portion of the brain tumor may help reduce your signs and symptoms. In some cases only a small biopsy is taken to confirm the diagnosis.

Radio Surgery for Brain Tumours – Stereotactic radio surgery (SRS) is not a form of surgery in the traditional sense. Instead,Radio Surgery for brain cancers uses multiple beams of radiation to give a highly focused form of radiation treatment to kill the tumor cells in a very small area. Each beam of radiation isn’t particularly powerful, but the point where all the beams meet — at the brain tumor — receives a very large dose of radiation to kill the tumor cells.Radio surgery is typically done in one treatment, and in most cases you can go home the same day.

Radiation Therapy for Brain Cancers and Brain Tumours – Radiation Therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays or protons, to kill tumor cells. Radiation therapy can come from a machine outside your body (external beam radiation), or, in very rare cases, radiation can be placed inside your body close to your brain tumor (brachytherapy).External beam radiation can focus just on the area of your brain where the tumor is located, or it can be applied to your entire brain (whole brain radiation). Whole brain radiation is most often used to treat cancer that has spread to the brain from some other part of the body.

Chemotherapy for Brain Cancers – Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill tumor cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be taken orally in pill form or injected into a vein (intravenously). The chemotherapy drug used most often to treat brain tumors is temozolomide (Temodar), which is taken as a pill. Many other chemotherapy drugs are available and may be used depending on the type of cancer.Another type of chemotherapy can be placed during surgery. When removing all or part of the brain tumor, your surgeon may place one or more disk-shaped wafers in the space left by the tumor. These wafers slowly release a chemotherapy drug over the next several days The other Treatments for Brain Tumours include – Cyber Knife and Gamma Knife brain tumor

Stem cell transplantation: A stem cell transplant infuses healthy blood-forming stem cells into the body. ... Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs designed to interfere with and halt the growth of cancer cells in the body.

Blood Cancer Treatment / Leukaemia Treatment

Leukemia or Blood Cancer Treatment
Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that has become cancerous.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia treatment
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also called CLL) It affects a certain type of white blood cell, called a B lymphocyte. Which helps fight infections. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the second most common type of leukemia in adults.

CLL Treatment / Chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment
Bone Marrow or Cord Blood Transplant –The type of bone marrow or cord blood transplant that is most often used to treat Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is called an allogeneic transplant. An allogeneic transplant replaces the abnormal cells in the patient’s bone marrow with healthy blood-forming cells from a family member, unrelated donor or cord blood unit. The first step in an allogeneic transplant is finding a matching donor – someone who can donate marrow or peripheral blood – or a cord blood unit to provide these blood-forming cells.

Reduced-Intensity and Non-Myeloablative Transplants – For some people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or CLL, an allogeneic transplant may offer the best chance for a long-term remission. In a standard transplant, patients get very high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation before the transplant. This is called the pre-transplant conditioning regimen. A high-dose conditioning regimen has two goals: Autologous Transplants for CLL -Autologous transplantation is not as common as allogenic transplantation in treating Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In an autologous transplant, a patient receives his or her own blood-forming cells. These cells are collected from the patient’s blood or marrow, preferably when he or she is in remission, and then frozen and stored. The patient then receives a very high-dose conditioning regimen, after which the thawed cells are given back to the patient intravenously. Autologous transplant recipients have been shown to experience remissions of 5-6 years, so it remains a possible treatment option for some patients with CLL.

Chemotherapy for Leukemia – During chemotherapy, you’ll be given potent drugs that must be toxic enough to damage or kill leukemic cells. At the same time, they take aim at normal cells and can cause side effects. Yet, not everyone experiences side effects and people react differently. Doctors commonly combine two or more chemotherapy drugs to treat CLL. Each drug type works in a different way to kill the cancerous cells. Combining drug types can strengthen their effectiveness.
Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Blood Cancers – Drug therapy using monoclonal antibodies can be an effective treatment. A monoclonal antibody is an immune protein made in a laboratory. It’s designed to target a specific molecule on the surface of CLL cells. but they’re generally milder than chemotherapy’s side effects. Because they’re designed to target and attack specific substances, they tend to leave normal cells unharmed.

 

Eosinophilic Leukemia treatment 
Eosinophilic leukemia is a disorder in which too many white blood cells, known as Eosinophils, are produced in the blood, bone marrow, and other tissues of the body. Ordinarily, these white blood cells help the body fight diseases and infections. With Eosinophilic leukemia, the overabundance of white blood cells can sometimes lead to dangerous results.

Treatments for Eosinophilic leukemia 
Chemotherapy for treatment of Eosinophilic leukemia – Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells, usually by stopping the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide. Systemic chemotherapy is delivered through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication, or a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in treating blood disorders. A chemotherapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time. A patient may receive one drug at a time or combinations of different drugs at the same time.

Surgery for treatment of Eosinophilic leukemia – Surgery to remove the spleen (called a splenectomy), which also makes white blood cells, may be recommended for some patients. A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery.

Immunotherapy for treatment of Eosinophilic leukemia – Immunotherapy (also called biologic therapy), is designed to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to bolster, target, or restore immune system function. Recombinant interferon alpha (Alferon, Roferon-A, Intron A) is a biologic therapy that is occasionally used to treat Eosinophilic Leukemia.

Targeted Therapy for treatment of Eosinophilic leukemia
Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting damage to normal cells.

Stem Cell Transplantation for treatment of Eosinophilic leukemia
A stem cell transplant is a medical procedure in which diseased bone marrow is replaced by highly specialized cells, called hematopoietic stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are found both in the bloodstream and in the bone marrow. Today, this procedure is more commonly called a stem cell transplant, rather than bone marrow transplant, because it is the blood stem cells that are typically being transplanted, not the actual bone marrow tissue.Before recommending transplantation, doctors will talk with the patient about the risks of this treatment and consider several other factors, such as the type of cancer, results of any previous treatment, and the patient’s age and general health.

Radiation Therapy for treatment of Eosinophilic leukemia
Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. The most common type of radiation therapy is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body. When radiation therapy is given using implants, it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy. A radiation therapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period of time. Side effects from radiation therapy include fatigue, mild skin reactions, upset stomach, and loose bowel movements. Most side effects go away soon after treatment is finished.

T-Cell Leukaemia treatment 
What is T- Cell?
A T-cell is a type of white blood cell that directly helps body’s immune system fight infection.

What is T-Cell Leukemia –T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a rare cancer of the immune system’s own T-cells.
Types of ATL 

Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia (LGLL) -LGLL is a slow-growing T-cell leukemia and is more common in women than in men. The cause of Large granular lymphocytic leukemia or LGLL is unknown, although about 30% of people with LGLL also have rheumatoid arthritis (a chronic disease causing swelling in the joints of the hands, feet, wrists, knees, hips, or shoulders).

T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia (T-PLL) T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia or T-PLL is an aggressive subtype of CLL. It is more common in older men, but women may also develop T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. It can affect the skin, but in a different way.

Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) – Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or ATLL has four subtypes. Depending on the different features, it is subclassified as smoldering, chronic, acute, or adult T-cell lymphoma (cancer of the lymph system). The acute and the adult T- cell lymphoma subtypes grow quickly. ATLL is caused by a retrovirus called the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV1).

Sezary Syndrome – Sezary syndrome is a form of mycosis fungoides, a T-cell lymphoma that occurs in the skin. Sezary syndrome is usually slow-growing and takes years to develop from mycosis fungoides, which is located only on the skin. Sezary syndrome is generally diagnosed when large numbers of the lymphoma cells are found in the blood, often together with reddening of the skin.

Treatments for T Cell Blood Cancer
Chemotherapy Treatment : Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells, usually by stopping the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide. Systemic chemotherapy is delivered through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication, or a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in treating blood disorders. A chemotherapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time. A patient may receive one drug at a time or combinations of different drugs at the same time.

Immunotherapy Treatment : Immunotherapy (also called biologic therapy) is designed to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to bolster, target, or restore immune system function. Recombinant interferon alpha (Alferon, Roferon-A, Intron A) is used as a treatment for ATLL. Interferon is a natural protein found in the body that stimulates the immune system.

Learn more about immunotherapy.
Targeted Therapy Treatment for Blood Cancer -Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting damage to normal cells.

Stem Cell Transplant treatment for Blood Cancer / Bone Marrow Transplant Treatment : A stem cell transplant is a medical procedure in which diseased bone marrow is replaced by highly specialized cells, called hematopoietic stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are found both in the bloodstream and in the bone marrow. Today, this procedure is more commonly called a stem cell transplant, rather than bone marrow transplant, because it is the blood stem cells that are typically being transplanted, not the actual bone marrow tissue.

People with colon cancers that have not spread to distant sites usually have surgery as the main or first treatment. Chemotherapy may also be used after surgery (called adjuvant treatment). Most adjuvant treatment is given for about 6 months.

Colon Cancer Surgery

Colon cancer
Colon, or colorectal, cancer is cancer that starts in the large intestine (colon) or the rectum (end of the colon).

Risk factor:

  1.  If you are older than 60
  2.  If you eat a a lot of red or processed meats
  3.  If you have colorectal polyps
  4.  If you have inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis)
  5.  If you have a family history of colon cancer
  6.  If you have a personal history of breast cancer

Causes:

  1.  Diet
  2.  Obesity
  3.  Smoking
  4.  Drug effects

Symptoms:

  1.  Diarrhea or Constipation
  2.  Changes in stool consistency
  3.  Narrow stools
  4.  Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool
  5.  Pain, cramps, or gas in the abdomen
  6.  Pain during bowel movements
  7.  Continual urges to defecate
  8.  Weakness or fatigue
  9.  Unexplained weight loss
  10.  Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  11.  Iron deficiency (anemia)

Treatments:
Surgery
Surgery to remove part of or the entire colon is called colostomy. During colectomy, a surgeon will remove the part of the colon containing the cancer as well as the maringal area close to the cancer. In addition, nearby lymph nodes are also usually removed. Depending on the extent of the colectomy, the healthy portion of the colon will either be reattached to the rectum or attached to an opening in the wall of the abdomen called a stoma. This latter option is called a colostomy, and waste will exit the body through the stoma into a colostomy bag instead of exiting through the rectum.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is generally used to treat cancer that has spread or metastasized because the medicines travel throughout the entire body. Treatment occurs in cycles so the body has time to heal between doses.Combination therapies often include multiple types of chemotherapy or chemotherapy combined with other treatment options.

Radiation
Radiation treatment, also known as radiotherapy, destroys cancer by focusing high-energy rays on the cancer cells. Radiotherapy can be used as a standalone treatment to shrink a tumor or destroy cancer cells, and it is also used in combination with other cancer treatments.

Lobectomy: The lungs are made up of 5 lobes (3 on the right and 2 on the left). In this surgery, the entire lobe containing the tumor(s) is removed. This is often the preferred type of operation for NSCLC if it can be done. Segmentectomy or wedge resection: In these surgeries, only part of a lobe is removed

Lung Cancer Treatment

Lungs Cancer
Lung cancer begins when cells in the lung change and grow uncontrollably to form a mass called a tumor. A lung tumor can begin anywhere in the lung.

Types:

  1.  Non-Small Cell
    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comes from epithelial cells and is the most common type.
  2.  Small-Cell
    Small cell lung cancer begins in the nerve cells or hormone-producing cells of the lung. The term “small cell” refers to the size and shape of the cancer cells as seen under a microscope.

Symptoms:

  1.  A new cough that doesn’t go away
  2.  Changes in a chronic cough or “smoker’s cough”
  3.  Coughing up blood, even a small amount
  4.  Shortness of breath
  5.  Chest pain
  6.  Wheezing
  7.  Hoarseness
  8.  Losing weight without trying
  9.  Bone pain
  10.  Headache
  11.  Swelling of the neck and face
  12.  Loss of appetite
  13.  Fatigue

Causes:

  1.  Smoking
  2.  Asbestos fibers
  3.  Radon gas
  4.  Familial predisposition
  5.  Lung diseases
  6.  Prior history of lung cancer
  7.  Air pollution

 

Treatments:
Lobotomy
For NSCLC, a lobectomy (removal of an entire lobe of the lung) has been shown to be the most effective type of surgery, even when the lung tumor is very small.

A Wedge
If the surgeon cannot remove an entire lobe of the lung, the surgeon can remove the tumor, surrounded by a margin of normal lung.

Pneumonectomy
If the tumor is close to the center of the chest, the surgeon may have to remove the entire lung.

Radiofrequency Ablation
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the use of a needle inserted into the tumor to destroy the cancer with an electrical current. It is sometimes used for a lung tumor that cannot be removed with the other types of surgery listed above.

Adjuvant Therapy
Adjuvant therapy is treatment that is given after surgery to lower the risk of the lung cancer returning. Adjuvant therapy includes radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and possibly targeted therapy.

Surgery to remove breast cancer. There are two main types of surgery to remove breast cancer: Breast-conserving surgery (also called a lumpectomy, quadrantectomy, partial mastectomy, or segmental mastectomy) – A surgery in which only the part of the breast containing the cancer is removed.

Breast Cancer

What is Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer is a group of cancer cells (malignant tumor) that starts in the cells of the breast and invade surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body.

Types of Breast Cancer

Ductal Carcinoma in Citu (DCIS) – It is a non-invasive cancer where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the breast milk duct. The atypical cells have not spread outside of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. Ductal carcinoma in situ is very early cancer that is highly treatable, but if it’s left untreated or undetected, it can spread into the surrounding breast tissue.

Infiltrative Ductal Carcinoma – The abnormal cancer cells that began forming in the milk ducts have spread beyond the ducts into other parts of the breast tissue. Invasive cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body. It is also sometimes called infiltrative ductal carcinoma.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer – A new, large-scale study of triple-negative breast cancer shows that small molecules called microRNA can be used to define four subtypes of this aggressive malignancy.

Inflammatory breast cancer – It is an aggressive and fast growing breast cancer in which cancer cells infiltrate the skin and lymph vessels of the breast. It often produces no distinct tumor or lump that can be felt and isolated within the breast. But when the lymph vessels become blocked by the breast cancer cells, symptoms begin to appear.

Metastatic breast cancer – It is also classified as Stage 4 breast cancer. The cancer has spread to other parts of the body. This usually includes the lungs, liver, bones or brain.

Medullary carcinoma – It accounts for 3-5% of all breast cancer types. The tumor usually shows up on a mammogram, but does not always feel like a lump. At times, it feels like a spongy change of breast tissue.

Tubular Carcinoma – Making up about 2% of all breast cancer diagnosis, tubular carcinoma cells have a distinctive tubular structure when viewed under a microscope. It is usually found through a mammogram and is a collection of cells that can feel like a spongy area of breast tissue rather than a lump. Typically this type of breast cancer is found in women aged 50 and above and usually responds well to hormone therapy.

Mucinous carcinoma – It represents approximately 1% to 2% of all breast cancers. The main differentiating features are mucus production and cells that are poorly defined. It also has a favorable prognosis in most cases.

Mammary Paget Disease – This condition is a rare type of cancer affecting the skin of the nipple and often the areola, which is the darker circle of skin around the nipple. Most people with Paget disease evident on the nipple also have one or more tumors inside the same breast; generally either ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer (1–3). Paget disease is frequently misdiagnosed at first because the first noticeable symptoms can easily be confused with more common skin conditions affecting the nipple. Like all breast cancers, the prognosis for Paget disease depends on a variety of factors, including the presence or absence of invasive cancer and whether or not it has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

Treatments for breast Cancer:
Breast Cancer Surgery involves the physical removal of the tumor, typically along with some of the surrounding tissue and frequently sentinels lymph node biopsy. Standard surgeries include:

  1. Mastectomy Surgery for Breast Cancer:Removal of the whole breast – Segmental mastecotomy (Removal of the cancer as well as some of the breast tissue): This procedure includes the removal of the cancer along with some of the breast tissue that’s surrounds the tumour and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumour. During this particular treatment doctor also removes the lymph nodes under the arm that is also called partial mastectomy.
  2. Quadrantectomy Surgery for Breast Cancer:Removal of one quarter of the breast – Quadrantectomy (removal of one quarter or quadrant of the breast): This form of surgery is referred as a segmental or partial mastectomy. In this surgery quarter of a breast tissue is removed along with the muscles of the chest wall that lies within a 2-3 centimeter radius of a tumour This procedure is an alternate to a radical also called simple mastectomy, which includes the complete removal of the breast. Researches show that the patients who have been treated with this procedure, 9% of the people who had this surgery experienced a relapse in their cancer
  3. Lumpectomy Surgery for Breast Cancer:Removal of a small part of the breast – Lumpectomy (Removal of the lump): This treatment is often done under the general anesthesia. The surgeon makes a cut in the breast and removes the tumor along with a small rim of normal tissue that surrounds the tumor. After treating the tumor the surgeon then closes the incision with stitches, making the breast look like before surgery. It has been seen that in some cases more than one surgery is required to get cleaner margins.
  4. Breast Conserving Surgery for breast Cancer:In this surgery we surgically remove the cancer in the breast without removing the complete Breast. This is a form of surgery that is done to remove the cancer in the breast but not the complete breast.

If the patient desires, then breast reconstruction surgery, a type of cosmetic surgery, may be performed to create an aesthetic appearance.

Radiotherapy For breast Cancer Treatment:
Radiotherapy uses controlled doses of radiation to kill cancer cells. It is generally given after surgery and chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. If you need radiotherapy, your treatment will begin about a month after your surgery or chemotherapy to give your body a chance to recover. You will probably have radiotherapy sessions three to five days a week, for three to six weeks. Each session will only last a few minutes.

Chemotherapy For Breast Cancer Treatment:
Chemotherapy involves using anti-cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is usually used after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that have not been removed. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy. In some cases, you may have chemotherapy before surgery, which is generally used to shrink a large tumor. This is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

Hormone Treatment For Breast Cancer: 
Some Breast Cancers are stimulated to grow by the hormones oestrogen or progesterone, which are found naturally in your body. These types of cancer are known as hormone-receptor-positive cancers. Hormone therapy works by lowering the levels of hormones in your body or by stopping their effects.The type of hormone therapy you have will depend on the stage and grade of your cancer, which hormone it is sensitive to, your age, whether you have been through the menopause and what other type of treatment you are having. You will probably have hormone therapy after surgery and chemotherapy, but it is sometimes given before surgery to shrink tumors, making it easier to removes.