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PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE / COSMETIC

PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE / COSMETIC

Abdominoplasty

Commonly referred to as Tummy Tuck, it is a cosmetic procedure, which is used to make the abdomen firmer. The surgery removes excessive fat and skin from the middle and lower abdomen and also tightens and strengthens the muscles of the abdomen wall.

Best Candidates for Tummy Tuck
Causes:

  1.  Men or women who have excess or sagging abdominal skin
  2.  Those having excessive fat deposits
  3.  A protruding abdomen that is out of proportion to the rest of body
  4.  Abdominal muscles that have been separated & weakened
  5.  Those who have a stable weight
  6.  Those who do not smoke

Causes of a Protruded Belly:

  1.  Fluctuations in weight
  2.  Aging
  3.  Pregnancy
  4.  Heredity

Procedure:
Complete Abdominoplasty:
The surgeon will cut the abdomen from hipbone to hipbone and then contour the skin, tissue, and muscle as needed. The surgery will involve moving the belly-button. For a few days, drainage tubes may be required under the skin.

Partial or mini Abdominoplasty:
Mini-Abdominoplasty is often done on people whose fat deposits are located below the navel. During this procedure, the surgeon most likely does not moves the belly button, and the procedure may only take up to two hours, depending on the case.

Combination procedures:
Abdominoplasty is a component of a lower body lift and can be combined with liposuction contouring, breast reduction, breast lift, or occasionally hysterectomy.

Benefits:
Aesthetic benefit :
A tummy tuck will have significant aesthetic benefit for men and women with protruding bellies, excess abdominal fat, or loose, saggy skin in the midsection.

Tightens Sagging Skin as a result of Obesity:
Obesity cripples the routine activities; sudden loss of all the fat results in skin wrinkles and even the muscles remain relaxed even after losing fat. Both these side effects of weight reduction can be overcome by Abdominoplasty.

Pregnancy related Stretch marks:
This can be easily overcome with the help of Abdominoplasty. Stretch marks that exist in between the belly button and pubic hair get eliminated during the process.

Promotes Active Lifestyle:
One can easily walk or run long distance without any stress.

Eliminates back pain in many people:
Excess weight, is major contributors to back pain. With Abdominoplasty, it is possible to reduce the back pain as it takes away the excess weight from the area affecting back.

Blepharoplasty

What is Blepharoplasty?
Blepharoplasty is surgical modification of the eyelid. Excess tissue such as skin and fat are removed or repositioned, and surrounding muscles and tendons may be reinforced. It can be both a functional and cosmetic surgery. It can be performed at the same time as another procedure, such as a brow lift, face-lift or skin resurfacing.

The Eyelid Aging Process:

  1.  As skin ages, it gradually loses its elasticity. A lack of elasticity plus the constant pull from gravity causes excessive skin to collect on the upper and lower eyelids.
  2.  Excess skin on the lower eyelid causes wrinkles and bulges. On the upper eyelids, an extra fold of skin can hang over the eyelashes and get in the way of seeing.
  3.  The fat that cushions the eyeball from the skull can also cause bulges in the upper and lower eyelids. The thin membrane that holds the fat in place weakens with age, letting the fat jut into the lids.

Indications:

  1.  Blepharoplasty is often done as an elective surgery for cosmetic reasons.
  2.  Lower eyelid blepharoplasty is almost always done for cosmetic reasons, to improve puffy lower eyelid “bags” and reduce the wrinkling of skin.
  3.  Asian blepharoplasty or double eyelid surgery is a special type of blepharoplasty that creates a crease in the upper eyelid.
  4.  Blepharoplasty is sometimes needed for functional reasons. When an advanced amount of upper eyelid skin is present, the skin may protrude over the eyelashes and causes a loss of peripheral vision.

Good candidates for Blepharoplasty:
Healthy individuals who do not have a life-threatening illness or medical conditions that can impair healing.

Non-smokers

  1.  Individuals with a positive outlook and specific goals in mind for Blepharoplasty
  2.  Individuals without serious eye conditions

Benefits:

  1.  Upper eyelid surgery can remove excess fatty deposits that appear as puffiness in the upper eyelids.
  2.  Loose or sagging skin that creates folds or disturbs the natural contour of the upper eyelid, sometimes impairing vision, can be treated by eyelid lift surgery.
  3.  Lower eyelid Blepharoplasty can remove excess skin and fine wrinkles of the lower eyelid.
  4.  Correction of under eye bags
  5.  Lower eyelid surgery can correct droopiness of the lower eyelids, showing white below the iris (colored portion of the eye).

Breast Augmentation Surgery

What is Breast Augmentation Surgery?
Breast Augmentation is the surgical placement of Breast implants to increase fullness and projection of the breasts or to improve symmetry of the breasts.

Indications for Breast Augmentation:

  1.  Small Breast size
  2.  Under developed Breasts
  3.  Loss of firmness after Pregnancy or Breast feeding
  4.  Change in shape and size after weight loss
  5.  Noticeable difference in size of one Breast
  6.  Change in Breast volume due to aging

Breast Augmentation procedure for the emplacement of breast implant devices, thus serves three purposes:

  1.  Primary Reconstruction — the replacement of breast tissues damaged by trauma (blunt, penetrating, blast), disease (breast cancer), and failed anatomic development (tuberous breast deformity).
  2.  Revision and Reconstruction — to revise (correct) the outcome of a previous breast reconstruction surgery.
  3.  Primary Augmentation — to aesthetically augment the size, form, and feel of the breasts.

Benefits of the Procedure:
Aesthetic Improvement:
 Breast augmentation with breast implants enhances a woman’s figure by increasing breast size, reshaping the bust line, and providing shapelier body contour. Small breasts can cause some women to feel that their bust line is disproportionate; creating an overall figure that lacks balance. Breast enlargement can add curves and definition to the body’s profile for an appearance that is more conventionally attractive. Breast enhancement surgery with breast implants can be used to restore breast size and shape following a mastectomy. If a woman’s breasts are of noticeably different sizes, a single breast implant can make the breasts more similar in size, creating an attractive symmetry.

Increased Confidence: Reduced confidence and feelings of inadequacy are common when a woman feels that the size of her breasts is detrimental to her outward appearance. These feelings can be alleviated after a successful breast enhancement surgery adds size and youthful contour to the breasts. Women who have undergone a breast enlargement surgery consistently report experiencing increased self-esteem and confidence.

Post Mastectomy Option:
A mastectomy, or the removal of one or both breasts as treatment for cancer, can be traumatic for many women. To regain the bust line they had before their mastectomy, many women will choose to undergo reconstructive breast enhancement surgery, often with breast implants to achieve the most natural look possible.

Breast Reduction

Also known as “Reduction Mammaplasty”, is an operation to reduce the weight and volume of the breasts. During the procedure, excess fat, glandular tissue and skin are removed from the breasts, which are then reshaped. Breast reduction aims to achieve a breast size in proportion with body and helps to relieve the discomfort of overly large breasts.

Indications:

  1.  Breasts that are too large in proportion to the body frame
  2.  Heavy, pendulous breasts with nipples and areolas that point downward
  3.  Uneven Breasts
  4.  Back, neck or shoulder pain caused by the weight of the breasts
  5.  Skin irritation beneath the breasts
  6.  Indentations in the shoulders from tight bra straps
  7.  Restriction of physical activity due to the size and weight of the breasts
  8.  Dissatisfaction or self-consciousness about the largeness of the breasts

Procedure:

  1.  Breast Reduction surgery is usually done under general anesthesia or Local Anesthesia.
  2.  For the procedure, the surgeon removes some of the breast tissue and skin. The nipples may be moved higher to reposition them for cosmetic reasons.
  3.  The surgeon makes three surgical cuts: around the areola (the dark area around the nipples), from the areola down to the crease under the breast, and across the lower crease of the breast. Extra fat, skin, and breast tissue are removed.
  4.  The nipple and areola are moved to a higher position. Often the areola is made smaller. The surgeon, then, closes the cuts with stitches to reshape the breast.
  5.  Sometimes liposuction is combined with breast reduction to improve the shape of the breast and armpit areas. The procedure can last 2 – 5 hours.

Benefits:
Breast reduction procedure help in alleviating

Chronic Pain
That affects quality of life. Control on having headaches, neck pain, and shoulder pain.

Chronic Nerve Problems
Caused by poor posture, which result in numbness or tingling in arms or hands.

Cosmetic Problems
Such as persistent bra-strap groove, scar-like lines in the skin (striae), difficulty finding clothes that fit, and low self-confidence. Most importantly, it helps in avoiding unwelcome attention that makes one feel awkward.

Chronic rashes
under the breasts, excessive sweating, infection etc.

Gynecomastia:
It is the benign enlargement of breast tissue in males. The condition may occur physiologically in newborns due to transfer of maternal or placental estrogens from the mother or at any time from adolescence onwards. Gynecomastia may arise as an abnormal condition associated with disease or metabolic disorders, as a side-effect of medication, or as a result of the natural decrease of testosterone production in older males.

Treatment and Male Breast Reduction Surgery:
For men who feel self-conscious about their appearance, breast reduction surgery is an ideal option to flatten the breast area. Male breast reduction surgery usually takes around 90 minutes. The surgeon will make an incision around the areola and liposuction may be used to suck out excess fatty tissue. If there is a lot of tissue to remove, cuts may extend down the chest from the areola and the nipples may need to be repositioned. Results are permanent but weight gain, hormonal imbalances and the use of certain drugs can cause the breast area to enlarge again.

Brow Lift

It is not uncommon for the skin above the eyes to start to droop as one gets older, causing what is often referred to as the hood effect, and this make eyes look tired and the face look old. Also known as a “Forehead Lift”, Brow lift surgery is a simple procedure carried out to lift the area directly above the eye, opening up the eye area and making the face look younger. It involves lifting the brow itself and tightening the muscles which have been stretched over time. Also, it tightens any loose skin in the area and reduces excess fatty tissue. While brow lift surgery is often performed for purely cosmetic reasons, drooping brows and upper eye lids can affect vision in the most extreme of cases and this can be a quick and simple way to rectify the situation.

Benefits of Brow-Lift Surgery

  1.  Correct the asymmetry of the forehead and eyebrows
  2.  Minimizes the creases that develop across the forehead
  3.  Improves frown lines
  4.  Repositions a low or sagging brow
  5.  Makes more youthful and rejuvenated
  6.  Vanishes Creases that occur high on the bridge of the nose

Chemical Peel

Chemical peel, also known as “Chemexfoliation” or “Derma-Peeling”, is a technique used to improve the appearance of the skin. Sun exposure, acne or just getting older can leave one’s skin tone uneven, wrinkled, spotted or scarred. It helps make skin look smoother and younger. It is one of the least invasive ways to improve the appearance of the skin. Although chemical peels are used mostly on the face, they can also be used to improve the skin on your neck and hands.

One can Improve:

  1.  Acne or acne scars
  2.  Age and liver spots
  3.  Fine lines and wrinkles
  4.  Freckles
  5.  Irregular skin pigmentation
  6.  Rough skin and scaly patches
  7.  Scars
  8.  Sun-damaged skin

Technique:
The surgeon selects the best chemical or chemical mix for the individual patient. A solution is applied using a sponge, cotton pad, cotton swab or brush to the areas to be treated (or the entire face, avoiding the eyes, brows and lips). There are 3 types of chemical peels:

Superficial Chemical Peels
Just like the name describes, chemical peeling using these agents is a superficial exfoliation that aims for only the top most layers of skin.

Medium-Depth Chemical Peels
It is aimed for the middle layers of the skin. Unlike superficial chemical peeling, this kind of treatment should be used cautiously for dark-skinned individuals, because of the greater risk of post-inflammatory hyper pigmentation.

Deep Chemical Peels
It is a superb treatment which can generate remarkable improvements within a single procedure that can last for a long time. However, this treatment is more aggressive and therefore has some inconveniences like long healing time and uncomfortable conditions such as swelling, oozing etc.

Benefits of the Procedure:
Superficial peels
Used to improve the appearance of pigment changes in the skin, acne scars, mild sun damage, or fine wrinkles in all skin types. They can be done on the face and on other parts of the body. A superficial peel may also be used to prepare the skin for a deeper peel.

Medium peels
Used to treat mild to moderate wrinkles, long-term sun damage, pigment changes, and precancerous lesions of the skin (usually caused by sun exposure). Medium peels are used most often on the face.

Deep peels
Are used to treat severe wrinkles, long-term sun damage, pronounced pigment changes, and lesions and growths on the skin. They are done only on the face. Deep peels are not done on darker skin types, because they bleach the skin.

Chemical peels are sometimes done with dermabrasion or laser resurfacing for a more dramatic overall effect.

Chin Augmentation Surgery

Chin augmentation also known as “Mentoplasty” is a surgical procedure to reshape or enhance the size of the chin. It may be done either by inserting an implant or by moving or reshaping bones.

Best Candidates

  1.  People with naturally “weak” chin in proportion to facial bone structure.
  2.  People with too prominent chin
  3.  Patients undergoing nose surgery, in order to achieve facial proportion
  4.  People with distorted chin due to accident or trauma

Procedure
The surgery may be done either by inserting an implant or by moving or reshaping bones. Below mentioned are the details of the procedures

Surgery with Chin implants

  1.  General Anesthesia or medicine to numb the area being operated is given.
  2.  A cut is made, either inside the mouth or outside under the chin.
  3.  A pocket is created in front of the chin bone and under the muscles.
  4.  The surgeon may use real bone or fat tissue [patients’ own bone is donated from ribs or from part of the pelvis (the ileum), or an implant made out of silicone. The implant is placed inside the pocket.
  5.  The implant is usually attached to the bone with sutures or screws.
  6.  Sutures are used to close the surgical cut. When the cut is inside the mouth, the scar can barely be seen.

Surgery requiring Reshaping of Bones

  1.  Patient will be under general anesthesia.
  2.  The surgeon makes a cut inside the mouth along the lower gum. This gives the surgeon access to the chin bone.
  3.  The surgeon uses a bone saw or chisel to make a second cut through the jaw bone.
  4.  The jaw bone is moved and wired or screwed in place.
  5.  The cut is closed with stitches and a bandage is applied. Because the surgery is performed inside the mouth, no scars will be visible.

Benefits

  1.  Balances the face by making the chin longer or bigger compared to the nose
  2.  Strengthening of the week chin
  3.  More defined jaw line can be give

Ear Surgery

Ear surgery creates a natural shape, while bringing balance and proportion to the ears and face. Correction of even minor deformities can have profound benefits to the appearance and self-esteem. Ear plastic surgery, also known as “Otoplasty” or “Pinnaplasty”, can correct ear conditions such as:

  1.  Protruding ears
  2.  Miss-shape of ears
  3.  Abnormally large ear lobes
  4.  Lop ear (in which the tip folds down and trends forward)
  5.  Shell ear (a condition in which certain features of a normal ear are missing)

Procedure
Surgery to reshape the ears involves re-modeling the cartilage into a less protruding shape. It is an operation to correct prominent ears and place them closer to the head. The operation is usually performed through an incision behind the ear, although other incisions may be used depending on individual surgical requirements. Then the cartilage is bent back towards the head. The Surgery consists of removing excess skin behind the upper part of the ear. Permanent or dissolving stitches may be used. The two main techniques for correcting protruding ears are:

  1.  Ear Splinting – involves resetting the soft cartilage and using a splint to keep the ear in the new position. It’s used to treat babies under six months old.
  2.  Otoplasty or Pinnaplasty (pinning back the ears) – where the cartilage is remodeled to create the missing folds and position the ear closer to the head.

Face Lift Surgery

If you are bothered by signs of aging in your face, facelift surgery may be right for you. Technically known as Rhytidectomy, a facelift is a surgical procedure to improve visible signs of aging in the face and neck.

Areas of Improvement

  1.  Sagging in the midface
  2.  Deep creases below the lower eyelids
  3.  Deep creases along the nose extending to the corner of the mouth
  4.  Fat that has fallen or is displaced
  5.  Loss of muscle tone in the lower face may create jowls
  6.  Loose skin and excess fatty deposits under the chin and jaw can make even a person of normal weight appear to have a double chin

Procedure for Face Lift Surgery
Traditional face lift: Surgeon makes a surgical incision along the hairline, down past the front of the ears and into the hairline behind the ears. Then the skin is separated from the underlying tissue and excess fat is removed and facial muscles are tightened before repositioning. The skin will then be lifted and stitched into place along the original incision.

Minimal-access cranial suspension (MACS): The main difference between this type of face lift surgery and the traditional method is that the incisions made are smaller and the tightening of facial muscles and removal of excess fat is done through these small surgical incisions.

Keyhole surgery: Surgeon makes several very small incisions into the skin on the face. Then, a telescopic camera, called an endoscope, is fed beneath the skin so that the live image can be displayed on a monitor – it is from this that the surgeon can see exactly which muscles to tighten and how much excess fat to remove, if any. It is the most commonly used surgery and offers a short recovery time and also results in less scaring. The only key factor is that it is not suitable for everyone.

  1.  Complications
  2.  Bleeding, hematoma, bruising
  3.  Infection
  4.  Neurological dysfunction (loss of muscle function or sensation), which is usually temporary
  5.  Widened or thickened scar
  6.  Loss of Hair (around the incision site)
  7.  Face Lift At A Glance
  8.  Facelift surgery helps to make the face appear younger.
  9.  Results last approximately ten years.
  10.  Recovery time is usually one week but activities can begin the day after surgery.
  11.  Pain and discomfort are usually minimal.
  12.  Additional procedures to supplement the facelift may be necessary for the best results.

Hair Transplant

Hair transplantation is a surgical technique that moves individual hair follicles from a part of the body called the ‘donor site’ to bald or balding part of the body known as the ‘recipient site’. It is primarily used to treat male pattern baldness.

In this condition, grafts containing hair follicles that are genetically resistant to balding are transplanted to bald scalp.

Since hair naturally grows in follicles that contain groupings of 1 to 4 hairs, today’s most advanced techniques transplant these naturally occurring 1–4 hairs “follicular units” in their natural groupings. Thus modern hair transplantation can achieve a natural appearance by mimicking nature hair for hair. This hair transplant procedure is called Follicular Unit Transplantation (FUT).

Procedure:

  1.  Strip Harvesting Transplant Method : It involves removing a strip containing a large group of follicular units from the donor area. These follicular units are then separated under special microscopes, in a way that possible damage is completely minimized. Each follicular unit contains one to four terminal hairs as they naturally grow on each individual’s scalp. Recipient sites are created, ensuring that when these sites will be filled up with the hair, will give a natural result with sufficient coverage.
  2.  Follicular Unit Extraction Method : It involves removing one follicular unit at a time directly from the donor area. This is achieved by the use of a specialized punch of less than a 1mm diameter. The main difference between the Strip and FUE hair transplant methods is the way that hair is harvested from the donor area.

Significance:
Hair transplantation can significantly improve the appearance and self-confidence in patients who are balding.

Neck Lift

Neck lift is a procedure to eliminate the sagging skin from our neck and tighten the skin that remains resulting in a more elegant profile and youthful appearance. It provides a solution to people searching to improve the appearance of the neck and under the jaw line. This is designed to reduce the look of loose, sagging skin. A neck lift can even give some people the appearance of lost weight.

Some of the common indications for the surgery include

  1.  Turkey Wattle Neck: If the muscles of the neck are weak or loose, this may cause appearance of neck bands known as “Turkey Wattle”
  2.  Double Chin: Excess hereditary fat deposits underneath the chin
  3.  Aging: Sagging or loosening of the skin below the chin or jaw

Possible Neck-Lift Procedures Include

  1.  Liposuction: To remove excess fat
  2.  Cervicoplasty: To remove excess skin
  3.  Platysmaplasty: To remove or tighten neck muscles
  4.  Botox Injection: To address problems with fullness or bands

Precautions

  1.  Avoid Alcohol Intake
  2.  Stop taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin and ibuprofen. (NSAIDs increase your risk of bleeding.)
  3.  Quit Smoking as it impairs circulation and wound healing

Rhinoplasty

NOSE RESHAPE SURGERY (RHINOPLASTY)
“Rhinoplasty” or “nose surgery” sometimes referred to as “nose reshaping” or a “nose job,” improves the appearance and proportion of the nose, enhancing facial harmony and self confidence. Surgery of the nose may also correct impaired breathing caused by structural abnormalities in the nose. Rhinoplasty surgery can change

  1.  Nose size, in relation to the other facial structures
  2.  Nose width, at the bridge
  3.  Nose profile, with visible humps or depressions on the bridge
  4.  Nasal tip, that is large or bulbous, drooping, or too upturned
  5.  Nostrils that are large, wide or upturned
  6.  Nasal asymmetry and deviation

A Rhinoplasty procedure is a good option for you if

  1.  Your facial growth is complete and you are 13 years of age or older
  2.  You are physically healthy
  3.  You do not smoke
  4.  You have specific, but realistic goals in mind for the improvement of your appearance

Risks

  1.  Temporary Swelling around the eyes & nose
  2.  Bleeding from nose.
  3.  Injury or holes to your septum (the wall that separates your nostrils).
  4.  Skin problems, including breakdown of skin tissue (skin necrosis) and irritation from the tape and bandaging.
  5.  Infection: Preventive antibiotics may be given after surgery to reduce the risk of infection.