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Urology

Urology is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis).

Urology Treatments

Ureteric Stones:
How does Ureteric Stones happen?
There are salts and minerals in the urine that stick together to form small “pebbles.” They are usually painless while they remain in the kidney. But they can cause severe pain when small pieces leave the kidney and travel through the narrow tubes (ureters) to the bladder. Once it is free in the renal pelvis, and passes through the ureter it can stick anywhere, but it is most likely to stick: (1) at the pelviureteric junction, (2) in the upper or (3) in the lower third of the ureter, or (4) at the entry of the ureter into the bladder.

As the stone passes down the ureter, it causes severe ureteric colic, even a tiny one causes agony. It causes severe pain in the loin, radiating to the groin, perineum, and testis or to a woman’s labia.

Diagnosis for Ureteric Stones: Different types of tests are done to find out whether a person is suffering from ureteric stones

  1. 1) Ultrasonography
  2. 2) X-rays
  3. 3) Excretory urography
  4. 4) Urinalysis
  5. 5) Special imaging of your urinary tract (intravenous pyelogram).

Treatment:
a) One of the most common way to remove stone is Shock-Wave lithotripsy (SWL). This procedure involves breaking of stones with the help of a machine from outside the body. Focused shock waves (short pulses of high energy sound waves) are transmitted to the stone through the skinwhich helps to break them into smaller pieces. The stone fragments then pass with urine. The advantages of his procedure are low risk of complications and there is no need for anesthesia.

b) The second way to remove the stones is Ureteroscopy (URS), a type of treatment done with a small-caliber endoscope. URS is common, success rates are very high, and the risk of complications is low.

c) Another way which removes stones directly from the skin is Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PNL). This involves removing medium-sized or larger renal calculi (kidney stones) from the patient’s urinary tract by means of a nephroscope passed into the kidney through a track created in the patient’s back.